BIOLOGY (BIOL)

BIOL 111 - HUMAN BIOLOGY

Basic anatomy and physiology. Organ systems, genetics, reproduction, development, circulation, respiration, nutrition, digestion, and excretion. Social aspects of human biology. Appropriate for non-majors, allied health students, and students preparing for further training in nursing or physical therapy. Lecture, discussion, and laboratory. May be taken before or after Biol 112. For major credit in nuclear medicine technology. Not for major credit in biology or medical technology.

Credits: 1,3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Course Notes: BIOL major no credit

BIOL 112 - ENVIRONMENTAL BIOLOGY

Ecology, evolution and the diversity of life with emphasis on practical environmental consequences of human activities. Laboratory focuses on open-ended student experimental projects. Field trips to sites of interest. Lecture, discussion, and laboratory. May be taken before or after Biol 111. For major credit in environmental science. Not for major credit in biology.

Credits: 1,3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Course Notes: BIOL major no credit

BIOL 113 - THE NATURE OF SCIENCE

An exploration of scientific inquiry and how it is used to study the natural world and solve problems. Contemporary issues such as climate change, biodiversity and public health are the basis of class activities and discussions. Students gain experience with scientific methodology and practice, find and evaluate information about science and medicine, analyze scientific data, and examine the role of science in a social context. Fulfills general education requirements for natural science. Non laboratory course.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: (MATH 095 or MATH 096) and ENG 099

Course Notes: or higher., No credit for science majors.

BIOL 121 - ANATOMY

In depth study of the structure of skeletal, muscular, integumentary, nervous, digestive, circulatory, lymphatic, immune, respiratory, excretory and reproductive Systems. Appropriate for biology majors, pre-health professional students. Lecture, laboratory, and discussion.

Credits: 1,3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Prerequisites: MATH 096 and ENG 101

Course Notes: Prerequisites: MATH 095 or 096 or 099 with a min grade, of C+ or higher, or MATH 101 or MATH 105 with a min, grade of C-.

BIOL 122 - HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

In depth study of the function and regulation of organs and organ systems, including neuromuscular physiology, homeostasis, and hormonal regulation. Lecture, laboratory, and discussion.

Credits: 1,3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Prerequisites: MATH 096 and ENG 101

Course Notes: Credits can be applied to biology major.

BIOL 123 - ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY I

Anatomy & Physiology I covers the integumentary, skeletal, muscular and nervous systems, including the link between the structure and function of various organ systems. The primary underlying principle discussed is homeostasis, and for each system various pathological conditions and their causes will also be discussed. Material taught in lecture will be reinforced in laboratory using student designed experiments, demonstrations, and a detailed study of models and preserved specimens.

Credits: 1,3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Prerequisites: MATH 096

Course Notes: Must take BIOL 123 lecture and lab concurrently

BIOL 124 - ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II

Anatomy & Physiology II covers the endocrine, circulatory, lymphatic, respiratory, digestive, urinary and reproductive systems, including the link between the structure and function of the various organ systems. The primary underlying principle discussed is homeostasis, and for each system various pathological conditions and their causes will also be discussed. Material taught in lecture will be reinforced in laboratory using student designed experiments, demonstrations, and a detailed study of models and preserved specimens.

Credits: 1,3

Attributes: Lab Course

Prerequisites: MATH 096 and BIOL 123

Course Notes: Must take BIOL 124 lecture and lab concurrently.

BIOL 151 - INTRODUCTION TO BASIC SCIENTIFIC INQUIRY

This course introduces students to current concepts and basic techniques in modern biology. Students will also be introduced to the scientific literature, writing short science reports, critical thinking, and the opportunity to work with at least five biology faculty in laboratory or field environments.

Credits: 1

Attributes: Natural Science

Course Notes: Science Summer Bridge Program -, must have advisor approval to register.

BIOL 201 - ORGANISMIC BIOLOGY

Biological principles relating to organism level of complexity. Tissues, organs, and organ systems in structure and function; development; physiology; and introductory genetics. Lecture, laboratory, and discussion.

Credits: 2,3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Prerequisites: MATH 121

BIOL 202 - ECOLOGY, EVOLUTION, AND GENETICS

Biological principles relating to population levels of organization. Topics include introduction to ecology and the biosphere, mechanisms of evolution and introductory genetics. Lecture, laboratory, and discussion.

Credits: 1-3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Prerequisites: MATH 121 and CHEM 201

BIOL 221 - KINESIOLOGY

Kinesiology is the study of human movement with a focus on the mechanisms of movement and how the human body responds to movement and exercise. This course will provide an overview of the three major components of kinesiology: Exercise Physiology, Biomechanics, and Motor Control and Development. Topics include an introduction to exercise-induced stress effects on the body and organ systems, musculoskeletal biomechanics, regulation and control of muscles by the nervous system and how these systems develop from birth to adulthood.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: (BIOL 121 and BIOL 122) or BIOL 201

BIOL 242 - ANIMAL BEHAVIOR

Evolutionary, developmental and environmental bases of animal behavior. Emphasis on birds and mammals. Communication, decision-making, motivation, learning, memory, social behavior, and mating systems. See Psych 242.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 201 or BIOL 202

Course Notes: Students with BIOL 111 or PSYC 103 may take, the course with intructor's consent.

BIOL 250 - THE EVOLUTION OF CULTURE

Effects of biological evolution on culture and cultural evolution on human societies. Use of human behavioral ecology, memetics and dual inheritance theory to understand the processes by which cultures come about and implications for modern societies. Students will work in groups to apply theories learned in this class to addressing societal problems.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Grounds for Change, Natural Science

Prerequisites: ENG 102 and MATH 110

Course Notes: Course can be used toward non-major/non-lab, general ed science, but not for major credit.

BIOL 301 - CELLULAR & MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

Biological principles relating to cellular and subcellular levels of organization. Topics include introductory biochemistry, cell biology and ultrastructure, and cell physiology. Laboratory includes cloning methods. Lecture, laboratory, and discussion.

Credits: 2,3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science, Transformational Service Learning

Prerequisites: CHEM 211

BIOL 302 - DIVERSITY AND EVOLUTION

Darwin, The Origin of Species, evolution through natural selection, population genetics, speciation, history of the earth, progression of life through the ages, human origins. Open to well-prepared nonmajors.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 202

Course Notes: or consent.

BIOL 310 - FUNDAMENTALS OF BEHAVIOR NEUROSCIENCE

Complex behaviors are possible because of the brain. Our goal is to understand this complex organ. Fundamentals of neural communication, organization, and basic neuroanatomy will be covered. Sensory systems will be introduced as models of neural organization.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 111 or BIOL 201

Course Notes: Credit only for Behavioral Neuroscience or Biopsychology I

BIOL 314 - QUANTITATIVE ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION

Designing ecological experiments to answer critical questions about climate change, urbanization, ecosystem processes and conservation. This course will be skill-based with a focus around experimental designs, experimental manipulation, emphasizing statistical analyses, intensive field and laboratory exercises, and scientific report writing. Lectures and discussions will review current information on climate change and ecosystem processes in the context of current paradigms of global conservation. Lecture and Laboratory.

Credits: 1-5

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Prerequisites: MATH 217 and BIOL 202

BIOL 315 - ECOLOGY

Interactions among organisms and between organisms and the environment. Population growth, competition, predator-prey relationships, mutualism, species diversity, dispersal, succession, nutrient cycles, and energy flow through ecosystems. Lecture, discussion, and field projects.

Credits: 2,3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 202 and MATH 217 (may be taken concurrently)

BIOL 316 - INTEGRATIVE ECOLOGY THINK TANK

This intensive course is for upper level undergraduates who have a keen interest in developing sound skills in ecologically related research. Students identify a research question and hypotheses, develop proposals, implement their project, analyze data, develop oral presentation skills and write a paper for potential publication. Students will work with the professor as well as have opportunities to receive feedback on their work from key scientific professionals at premier local research institutions in Chicago

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 202 and (BIOL 314 or BIOL 315)

Course Notes: Required interview with instructor.Some off campus, activities required.

BIOL 322 - BOTANY

Study of the major plant groups, their classification and taxonomy, the anatomy used to identify species. Ethno-botanical importance (e.g. medicinal uses), anatomy, morphology and ecology of plant species will be emphasized. Ecological and economic importance of weedy and invasive species in an ecosystem context will be discussed. Principles of classifying seed plants by families will be introduced in the field and in the herbarium at The Field Museum.

Credits: 4

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 201 or BIOL 202

BIOL 323 - TROPICAL MARINE BIOLOGY

Exploration of tropical habitats, both marine and terrestrial, in terms of basic biology and ecology and current threats due to development. Emphasis is on coral reefs, including snorkeling of the second largest barrier reef in the world off Ambergris Caye in Belize, with opportunities to observe diverse wildlife in the field. Terrestrial field trips include beaches, mangrove swamps, and tropical deciduous forests. Visits to Mayan ruins and the Belize Zoo on the mainland emphasize local cultural ties to the environment.

Credits: 2

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 324 (may be taken concurrently)

Course Notes: One prior college science course required or consent of, instructor.

BIOL 324 - MARINE BIOLOGY

Physical forces, biodiversity, organismal function, and ecological interactions that form marine environments. The principles of cell biology, organismic physiology, biomechanics, and ecology applied to marine biological problems.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 201 or BIOL 202 or BIOL 112

Course Notes: BIOL 323, Tropical Biology, can be taken as a lab for this, course. One prior college science course with a min grade, of C required.

BIOL 327 - PHYSICS OF THE HUMAN BODY I

Physical aspects of the structure and function of the human body, including the physics of heat loss, forces, pressure, and fluid dynamics, as applied to various body systems, with a focus on muscles, lungs, and the cardiovascular system.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: (PHYS 201) and (BIOL 201) or (BIOL 123 and BIOL 124)

Course Notes: Cross-listed with PHYS 327

BIOL 330 - WETLANDS DELINEATION

Scientific, technical, legal, and public policy issues involved in defining, delineating, regulating, conserving, and restoring wetlands. Preliminary assessment of a natural or disturbed area's wetland status, including biology, hydrology, and soils. Potential issues involved in developing, conserving, or restoring the area. This course alone will not qualify students as professional wetlands delineators.

Credits: 3

Prerequisites: (BIOL 112 or BIOL 201) and (CHEM 100 or CHEM 101)

Course Notes: Graduate students must be accepted into the environmental, management program.

BIOL 332 - ECOLOGY OF TALLGRASS PRAIRIE

Prairies have been described as the most endangered ecosystems in North America. This is a field-oriented introduction to prairies, including exploration of unique ecological processes found at the population, community, and ecosystem levels. Special attention will be given to prairie plants, insects, soils, endangered species, and prairie restoration.

Credits: 4

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 112 or BIOL 202

Course Notes: Includes offsite field trips.

BIOL 337 - NUTRITION IN AMERICA

This course will look at our understanding of nutrition and its effect on the body through the lens of the dual epidemics of obesity and food insecurity in America. Students will learn about epigenetc, microbiome and physiological effects of diet through primary and secondary literature and group projects. Students will also learn about the challenges involved in combating food insecurity and improving the American diet through a service-learning component.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science, Transformational Service Learning

Prerequisites: (BIOL 301 (may be taken concurrently)) and (BIOL 122 (may be taken concurrently) or BIOL 201 (may be taken concurrently))

BIOL 339 - EVOLUTIONARY PHYSIOLOGY

Learning to approach animal physiology from an evolutionary perspective. This course covers mechanisms by which animals perform life-sustaining functions, the evolution and adaptive significance of physiological traits, the diversity of physiological mechanisms, and how physiology and the environment interact. Laboratory involves dissection and study of physiological traits in a variety of different animals as well as experiments on the adaptive significance of traits.

Credits: 2,3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 201 or (BIOL 123 and BIOL 124)

BIOL 340 - APPLICATIONS IN ENVIRONMENTAL SCIENCE

Capstone course for the Environmental Science minor, this course explores various applications of environmental science related to biological systems, environmental chemistry and physical processes, including environmental toxicology, sampling methods, indicator species, and standard laboratory practices, protocols,and quality assurance.

Credits: 2,3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: PHSC 103 or PHSC 250 or CHEM 201

BIOL 344 - MAMMALOGY

This course will typically be held at the Field Museum of Natural History (Roosevelt Road and Lake Shore Drive) in order to take advantage of one of the world’s premier natural history museums and mammal collections. The course will review the origins and evolutionary relationships of the Mammalia, as well as the Orders of Mammals and the characters that define them. Other topics discussed include reproductive strategies, social behavior, locomotion, feeding, communication, patterns in their geographic distribution. Each 2 ½ hour class session will include both lecture and a mini lab using the museum’s exhibits or specimen collections. Basic working knowledge of taxonomy, phylogeny, comparative anatomy and evolutionary concepts is required.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 201 and BIOL 202

Course Notes: Some sessions will held at the Field Museum, of Natural History

BIOL 349 - INTRODUCTION TO BIONANOTECH

A brief introduction to material science and chemistry used for synthesis and construction of bionanomaterials and an overview of the bionanomaterials used in biomedical science. Emphasis will be placed on possible directions for expansion of this field, need for development of new tools and approaches for nanomaterials evaluation, and the potential benefits of bionanomaterials in cancer research. Students will gain basic knowledge needed to absorb and evaluate information about bionanotechnology and its emerging role in biomedical sciences.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 301

BIOL 350 - CANCER BIOLOGY

This course provides students with knowledge of the fundamental principles of the molecular and cellular biology of cancer cells. Biology of Cancer is designed to illustrate basic aspects of cancer development, and to discuss how molecular genetic approaches can be used to reveal fundamental processes of carcinogenesis. Lectures and demonstrations explain the role of growth factors, oncogenes, tumor suppressor genes, angiogenesis, and signal transduction mechanisms in tumor formation. Discussion of aspects of cancer epidemiology, prevention, and principles of drug action in cancer management is part of the course.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 301

Course Notes: or equivalent.

BIOL 351 - GENERAL GENETICS

Classical and molecular genetics. Transmission genetics, chromosome genetics, interaction of genes with sex and environment, mapping, DNA structure and replication, transcription, translation, chromosome structure and genome organization, extrachromosomal inheritance, mutagenesis, gene expression. Genetics of plants, insects, vertebrates, fungi, bacteria, and viruses.

Credits: 2,3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 201 and BIOL 202 and BIOL 301

Course Notes: or instr. consent Must register for same lect-lab, sect. of BIOL 351

BIOL 353 - MOLECULAR BIOLOGY

The structure of nucleic acids and chromosomes, DNA replication and repair, general and site-specific recombination, control of gene expression at the transcriptional and translational levels, oncogenes and retroviruses. Laboratory techniques include PCR, DNA fingerprinting, and DNA sequencing. Included in the biotechnology certificate program. Lecture, laboratory, and discussion.

Credits: 2,3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 301

Course Notes: or Instr. consent

BIOL 356 - DEVELOPMENTAL BIOLOGY

Basic principles and processes of embryology and development; selected invertebrates, vertebrates, and plants.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 301

BIOL 358 - CELL BIOLOGY

Molecular interactions that provide the foundation for the structure and functions of the cell. Topics include protein structure and function, membrane transport, post-translational modifications of proteins and protein secretion, cell cycle regulation, cell signaling and mechanisms of development and differentiation. Laboratory techniques include SDS-PAGE, cell fractionation, bacterial protein expression and purification, and immunohistochemistry. Included in the biotechnology certificate program. Lecture, laboratory and discussion.

Credits: 2,3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 301

Course Notes: or Instr.consent.

BIOL 360 - MICROBIOLOGY

Structure and function of prokaryotic cells, including metabolic and genetic diversity; emphasis on differences and similarities with eukaryotes. Roles microbes play in human body, soil, and water ecosystems. Special emphasis on human diseases and microbial processes for the maintenance of biosphere. Applications to medicine, biotechnology, food processing, agriculture, pollution control. Laboratory includes proficient and safe handling of microorganisms, identification of unknown bacteria, and biochemical and microscopic methods. Included in the biotechnology certificate program.

Credits: 2,3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 301

BIOL 361 - INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY FOR SCIENCES

Methods for finding biological and biotechnological information. Online and hard copy methods with an emphasis on the use of various computer databases and the Internet.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 301 and CHEM 212

Course Notes: or Instr. consent

BIOL 362 - DATA MINING IN LIFE SCIENCES

The advent of high throughput techniques in biology and chemistry requires a data mining approach to discover new knowledge form these large data sets. Data mining techniques allow an investigator to understand the collection of data and then to classify and/or make predictions form the data. It is a combination of statistical, informatic and other analytical techniques. This course is designed to be an introduction to data mining techniques for biolgists. Exampes will be drawn from genomic, proteomic and eidemologic data sets.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 301 and MATH 217

BIOL 364 - PROTEIN STRUCTURE DETERMINATION

Computer methods for converting electron microscopy of purified proteins into 3D protein structures.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 301 or BCHM 355

BIOL 365 - AQUATIC TOXICOLOGY

This course will explore the world of anthropogenic toxicants: harmful elements or compounds whose level in the environment is increased by human activities. The course will take a look at toxicants as they are released by human activities, enter and move through the aquatic system, chemically react with natural measures of water quality, interact and are taken up by living organisms and ultimately cause some kind of harmful effect at the cellular, individual, population and community levels. Students will be expected to research and present information on major topics in aquatic toxicology to the class, expanding the class base of knowledge and contributing to a "living textbook" of toxicological information.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: CHEM 212

BIOL 367 - IMMUNOLOGY

Humoral and cellular immune responses, generation of immune diversity, autoimmune and immunodeficiency diseases. Immunologic assays relevant to clinical settings. Laboratory techniques include antibody-antigen interactions, ELISA, and the purification of lymphocyte populations. Included in the biotechnology certificate program. Lecture, laboratory, and discussion.

Credits: 2,3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 301

BIOL 368 - RESEARCH METHODS

This course will cover the theory and practical application of various techniques used to analyze biological data including hands-on practice with equipment used in modern life science laboratories. Topics covered include pre-experiment planning, preparative methods, analytical methods, statistical evaluation of data and communication of results.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Lab Course

Prerequisites: BIOL 301

Course Notes: For international students only;, requires approval of the chair

BIOL 369 - CONSERVATION BIOLOGY: AFRICA

Conservation Biology—Tropical Africa is a 10 day, field-based course that will largely be carried out in the Amani Nature Reserve, Tanzania, where Dr. Norbert Cordeiro (Roosevelt University) and Dr. Henry Ndangalasi (University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania) have been working since 1998. Field work will include (i) conducting applied ecological studies relevant to conservation in the area, (ii) discussing and problem-solving issues of poverty and conservation affecting human access to resources, (iii) meeting with Tanzanian stakeholders to gain an appreciation of the complexities of the solutions required to conserve one of the world’s most important forests. Students will also spend 2 days in a savannah habitat at one of Tanzania’s premier national parks. This course will involve designing ecological experiments, experimental manipulation, statistical analyses, intensive field and laboratory exercises, and scientific report writing.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Lab Course, Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 202

BIOL 371 - THE BIOLOGY OF AGING

The biological relationships between the normal activities of life and aging. Changes in structure and function at various levels of biological organization (subcellular population) with age. Lectures, expert guest speakers, student seminars, term paper.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 111 or BIOL 201

Course Notes: and inst. approval. Must have a min of 3 hours of a 100, level BIOL course with a min grade of C-.

BIOL 380 - NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM STUDIES

Introduction to museum studies; in-depth study of biodiversity with opportunities to work with scientists in selected areas of genetics, botany and zoology.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 201

BIOL 381 - BIOLOGY OF BIRDS: ORNITHOLOGY

This is a hands-on course in the study of birds, from basic biology, to evolution, taxonomy, anatomy, ecology and behavior. There will be labs at the Field Museum using real specimens, and the exploratory field work component will include bird identification skills and bird ecology and behavior. Using a combination of lectures and invited speakers, students will build a firm and solid foundation on bird behavior, ecology and evolution, which will include a plethora of field techniques and laboratory skills.

Credits: 4

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 202

Course Notes: Mandatory pre-session TBA; field work included.

BIOL 383 - SPECIAL TOPICS IN BIOLOGY

Discussion and critical review of contemporary issues in biology and biomedical sciences based on student and instructor interests. Discussions are intended to foster thought and exploration of solutions to problems in health care, biological research, and approaches to combat health disparities.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Natural Science

Prerequisites: BIOL 301

BIOL 390 - PROBLEMS IN BIOLOGY

Application of theory of evolution to the explanation of behavior. Surveys a variety of species, addressing several behavioral categories as well as issues in sociobiology and human evolution. Examination of current research and theory in behavioral development in non-human animals. Topics include instinct theory, role of experience in development, and the relation between development and evolution of behavior.

Credits: 3

Prerequisites: 12 Credit Hours of Biology

Course Notes: 12SH in BIOL Instr. consent

BIOL 391 - MEDICAL INTERNSHIP

Off-campus experience at area medical facility. Rotation through at least five medical specialties at a hospital or an approved medical or biomedical research or clinical facility. At least 12 contact hours.

Credits: 3-6

Attributes: Transformational Service Learning

Course Notes: Approval of pre-professional advisor.

BIOL 392 - RESEARCH IN BIOLOGY

Independent science laboratory research experience under the guidance of a faculty researcher; 1 to 4 semester hours total may be applied toward the BS degree. Students may register in consecutive semesters.

Credits: 1-4

Attributes: Natural Science

Course Notes: Consent of instructor. $100 per semester hour., Students must arrange for independent laboratory, research experience with a science faculty, member prior to registration.

BIOL 393 - VETERINARY INTERNSHIP

Off-campus experience with a veterinarian or veterinary clinic.

Credits: 1-3

Attributes: Natural Science

Course Notes: Approval of pre-professional advisor.

BIOL 395 - INDEPENDENT STUDY

Independent library research culminating in a formal review paper on a topic approved by the instructor.

Credits: 1-4

Attributes: Natural Science

Course Notes: Consent of instructor., Students must arrange for a library independent study, with an instructor prior to registration;, may register for only 1 SH per semester, up to two semesters.

BIOL 396 - BIOLOGY INTERNSHIP

Internship off-campus related to the biological sciences. A maximum of 3 SH can be taken.

Credits: 1-4

Attributes: Natural Science

Course Notes: Approval of science advisor.