PHARMACY (PHAR)

PHAR 500 - COLLOQUIA-PHARMACY PROFESSION

The course introduces students to the profession, historic elements, and the process for becoming a pharmacist. Students will engage in self-reflection about the opportunities within the profession and the education and training required to obtain their desired pharmacy position. This course introduces the importance of interprofessional approaches to patient care in complex health care systems and the role of the pharmacist to assure optimal medication therapy outcomes.

Credits: 1

PHAR 505 - IMMUNIZATION CERTIFICATION

Pharmacy-Based Immunization Delivery is an innovative and interactive training program that teaches student pharmacists and pharmacists the skills necessary to become a primary source for vaccine information and administration. The program teaches the basics of immunology and focuses on practice implementation and legal/regulatory issues.

Credits: 1

PHAR 510 - BIOCHEMISTRY I

Knowledge of biochemistry is necessary to understand physiology and pathology of all cells, tissues and organ systems, as well as pharmacologic and therapeutic strategies employed in disease management. This clinically relevant biochemical knowledge base will be covered in two courses in the curriculum designated as Biochemistry I & II and are designed to produce specific educational and ability-based outcomes.

Credits: 4

PHAR 511 - BIOCHEMISTRY II

Knowledge of biochemistry is necessary to understand physiology and pathology of all cells, tissues and organ systems, as well as pharmacologic and therapeutic strategies employed in disease management. This clinically relevant biochemical knowledge base will be covered in two courses in the curriculum designated as Biochemistry 1 & 2 and are designed to produce specific educational and ability-based outcomes.

Credits: 4

PHAR 512 - CLINICAL MICROBIOLOGY & IMMUNOLOGY

Clinical microbiology and immunology is designed to train students in the principles of microbiology and introduce them to its application in pharmaceutical and clinical practice and to the understanding and management of infectious diseases. Topics in pharmaceutical and clinical microbiology will include fundamental principles of pathogenicity (specifically bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites), antimicrobial agents, contamination and infection control, aseptic techniques and sterility requirement in pharmaceuticals production.

Credits: 4

PHAR 514 - ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, AND PHATHOPHYSIOLOGY I

This course is focused on providing the background in functional anatomy, physiology, and pathology of organ systems that will allow students to integrate knowledge necessary to formulate a therapeutic care plan, to recommend and defend the course of treatment that best addresses a patient’s needs, to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment regimen and manage medications in a manner that assures optimal therapeutic.

Credits: 4

PHAR 515 - ANATOMY, PHYSIOLOGY, AND PHATHOPHYSIOLOGY II

This course is focused on providing the background in functional anatomy, physiology, and pathology of organ systems that will allow students to integrate knowledge necessary to formulate a therapeutic care plan, to recommend and defend the course of treatment that best addresses a patient’s needs, to evaluate the effectiveness of a treatment regimen and manage medications in a manner that assures optimal therapeutic outcomes.

Credits: 4

PHAR 519 - PHARMACEUTICS I: CALCULATIONS

This course focuses on the arithmetic operations involved in ensuring that accurate doses of medications are dispensed to patients. It is aimed at developing the pharmacy students' knowledge, skills and attitudes that would engender attention to detail, precision and accuracy in every operation that they perform so as to ensure that error-free, safe and efficacious medicines are dispensed to clients at all time. The course will develop students' skills in pharmaceutical calculations applicable to practice in conventional as well as in specialized settings such as prescription filling, medication order compounding, determination of dosage regimens and estimation of patients' compliance in community, clinical & hospital practice, industrial research and development, and in manufacturing.

Credits: 2

PHAR 520 - PHARMACEUTICS I: DRUG DELIVERY

The course will familiarize the student with the physical and chemical principles governing pharmaceutical chemistry and dosage form development. The student will be introduced to how basic physical/chemical principles are important in the preparation, compounding of the dosage form, and disease-based or patient-centered decision making and therapeutic outcomes. The influence of physico-chemical principles on storage and administration of the various pharmaceutical dosage forms will also be covered in class.

Credits: 4

PHAR 521 - PHARMACEUTICS II

The course focuses on physical and chemical principles relevant to the design, formulation, manufacturing, and use of pharmaceutical products such as powders, tablets, capsules, controlled delivery systems, sterile products and biopharmaceuticals. The properties of drug substance, non-active ingredients, excipients, and potential interactions between two entities are discussed. The influence of the interactions and relevance on drug product performance, stability and patient safety is highlighted. Related clinical outcomes relevance is discussed.

Credits: 3

PHAR 522 - PHARMACEUTICS III

Pharmaceutics III is a continuation of the didactic and laboratory courses in Pharmaceutics I/II: Drug Delivery. The principles and mechanisms of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, elimination (ADME), bioavailability and bioequivalence will be covered. Influence of the concepts on decision making regarding choice of drug, switching a drug within a pharmacologic/therapeutic class to another, compliance, wellness of patients, etc. will be discussed.

Credits: 3

PHAR 523 - PHARMACEUTICAL CARE I

The course introduces the student to the professional practice of pharmaceutical care. The student will learn what knowledge and experience is necessary to provide pharmaceutical care to patients. The course will explain the criteria for a health care professional practice, the meaning of “practitioner,” and what constitutes a profession. The roles of the patient, the practitioner, and selected components of society are described in the context of pharmaceutical care practice.

Credits: 3

PHAR 524 - PHARMACEUTICAL CARE II

Subsequent terms of the course sequence introduce new concepts to the student pertaining to professional practice of pharmaceutical care. The course will continue to build upon and elaborate on the criteria for a health care professional practice, the meaning of the “practitioner,” and what constitutes a profession. Students will continue to accumulate knowledge and skills from these sequences (I-VI) and demonstrate them in ongoing assessments and capstone exams.

Credits: 2

PHAR 530 - INTEGRATED SEQUENCE I

This course is designed to provide background necessary to choose drugs based on their pharmacokinetic (absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination; ADME), and pharmacodynamics (drug-receptor interactions, agonists, partial agonists, and antagonists) parameters and introduce students to pharmacology of drugs affecting the autonomic nervous system, as well as basic concepts in pharmacotherapy.

Credits: 4

PHAR 531 - INTEGRATED SEQUENCE II: MUSCULOSKELETAL AND IMMUNE SYSTEM DISEASES

This course is designed to provide background necessary to select optimal drug regimens based on biopharmaceutical principles and clinical considerations of the medications presented herein and introduce students to the scientific, clinical, social and economic aspects of drug use pertaining to infectious diseases.

Credits: 4.5

PHAR 532 - INTEGRATED SEQUENCE III: ENDOCRINE AND PULMONARY SYSTEMS

This course is designed to provide background necessary to select optimal drug regimens based on biopharmaceutical principles and clinical considerations of the medications presented herein and introduce students to the scientific, clinical, social and economic aspects of drug use pertaining to endocrine and pulmonary diseases.

Credits: 4.5

PHAR 538 - CLINICAL CASE DISCUSSIONS IN DIABETES

This course is designed to help students gain a better understanding of drug therapy for diabetes, and examine practical issues in diabetes care. Students in this class will participate in discussions of cases of real patients with diabetes. Each week, cases will focus on a different aspect of diabetes management. All students will be expected to lead at least one discussion, as well as participate in discussions each week.

Credits: 1.5

PHAR 539 - ADVANCED PEDIATRIC PHARMACOTHERAPY

This course is designed to provide an advanced understanding of the pathophysiology and pharmacotherapy associated with disease states commonly encountered in the pediatric population including general pediatrics, toxicology, pediatric critical care and trauma, obesity, psychiatric illness, and pharmacy-specific pediatric related issues.

Credits: 1.5

PHAR 541 - INTRODUCTION TO MANAGED CARE PHARMACY

This managed care pharmacy elective course will provide an overview of managed care pharmacy and an understanding of how managed care pharmacy impacts the healthcare system.

Credits: 3

PHAR 542 - INTRODUCTION TO MOLECULAR BIOLOGY AND CELL CULTURE

This course is designed to give the pharmacy and other students in life sciences, allied health fields and biotechnology a basic understanding of usefulness of molecular and cell culture techniques used in biomedical research. An emphasis is placed on the hands-on use of laboratory tools and equipment in order to familiarize the students with current biochemical, molecular techniques. Individual research topic will be given to students. Students will use various laboratory techniques to carry out research. Making hypothesis, literature search, designing of experiments, data collection and analysis, writing assignments and data presentation as appropriate to the discipline are part of the course.

Credits: 3

PHAR 543 - RESEARCH IN BIOTECHNOLOGY

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology is important area of science and technology, and contributes to design and delivery of new therapeutic drugs, the development of diagnostic agents for medical tests, and the beginnings of gene therapy for correcting the medical symptoms of hereditary diseases. This course will introduce the students to various biotechnology techniques used to attenuate chronic disorders like cancer, diabetes etc. Students will be involved in working independently on a research project that involves but not limited to characterization and expression of gene delivery vectors.

Credits: 3

PHAR 544 - ADVANCED DRUG LITERATURE EVALUATION

This course is designed to provide students with an opportunity to develop their literature evaluation skills. Students will review, analyze and present weekly journal articles focused on a clinical topic. This course is discussion-based and involves significant student participation each week. Students will be randomly asked to present different aspects of each assigned article. Faculty will facilitate a discussion of the clinical articles and their role in therapeutic decisions.

Credits: 1.5

PHAR 545 - PHARMACOLOGICAL STUDIES OF PSYCHOACTIVE DRUGS AND CHEMICALS IN ZEBRAFISH

This course is designed to introduce students to research techniques used to measure and characterize behavioral responses to psychoactive drugs and chemicals in an animal model used widely in pre-clinical research (Zebrafish, Danio rerio). Students will work in groups of 2 on a research project focused on characterization of anxiolytic and anxiogenic responses of zebra fish and their modulation by pharmacological agents.

Credits: 3

PHAR 546 - INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOPHARMACOLOGY

This course will introduce students to functions of the CNS, neurotransmitter-mediated processes in the CNS and their modulation by pharmacologic agents.

Credits: 3

PHAR 547 - CLINICAL BIOSTATISTICS

This course will introduce common biostatics encountered in medicine such as p-values, confidence intervals, standard deviations, statistical tests, etc. This course will introduce students to calculating statistics such as odds ratios, number needed to treat/harm, and other statistics along with the evaluation of those statistics. This course will utilize medical journal studies to assist students in a critical review of these statistics and how to interpret what is encountered. The course will heavily focus on biostatistics and not journal article reviews. Our focus will be on a basic understanding of statistics as they apply to the medical field. By the end of the course, the student should have a basic understanding of what they will read and review in medical journals in preparation of future IS courses as well as clinical rotations.

Credits: 3

PHAR 548 - RES. IN DRUG METAB. & DRUG INT

Drug metabolism is a critical step in the disposition of therapeutic agents. Modulation of drug metabolism following concomitant intake of multiple medications and/or natural health products leads to clinically relevant drug-drug or drug-herb interactions. In this research course students will have the opportunity to learn about various drug metabolism methodologies and how therapeutic agents and natural health products can potentially cause drug-drug/drug-herb interactions. Students will also gain insight into how to evaluate the pharmacological and clinical relevance of drug interaction studies. In the individually assigned research project student will learn to plan and conduct research, and interpret results.

Credits: 3

PHAR 549 - SPECIAL TOPICS - PHARMACY

This course is is designed for students who need to receive additional instruction in a previously-enrolled pharmacy course, or more advanced instruction.

Credits: 4.5

PHAR 550 - PHARMACY LAW

Students will learn about the history of pharmacy laws and how these laws structure practice guidelines and impact the distribution/dispensing of drugs. Students also learn about state and local statutes concerning pharmacy practice and healthcare policies relevant to pharmacy practice. The course includes an introduction to law, the Constitution, the role of laws/regulations, judicial system and process, and administrative agencies, with emphasis on the regulation of business and pharmacy practice.

Credits: 3

PHAR 551 - HEALTH CARE SYSTEMS

This course will discuss the U.S. health care system and approaches to ensure medication safety. External forces affecting health care delivery, organizational structure including professionals and policy surrounding those forces will be discussed in general. Specifically, the impact these issues have on the pharmacy profession will be examined as well as the models of pharmacy practice that exist today. Students should gain further understanding of the dynamic health care market.

Credits: 3

PHAR 552 - BIOSTATISTICS AND PHARMACO

This course is designed to introduce to first year pharmacy students, the concepts and methods of biostatistics, epidemiology and studydesign. This course will help students understand the types of clinical research study designs, applied biostatistics, quality of data, applicability of research results and the ability to evaluate studies critically based upon the quality of the reported data and study designs and not solely on the opinion of the researchers.

Credits: 3

PHAR 553 - MED USE SYSTEMS AND INFORMATICS

This course is developed to provide critical knowledge of informatics to second year pharmacy students to optimize the effectiveness and safety of medications. Upon competition of this this course, the students should be able to use information technology to: (1) Store, retrieve, and analyze health information; (2) Optimize the medication prescribing/ordering process; (3) Aid in clinical decision making; (4) Automate the medication delivery process; and (5) Facilitate pharmacy management.

Credits: 3

PHAR 554 - DRUG LITERATURE EVALUATION

This course is designed to provide pharmacy students with an overview of drug information resources, demonstrate medical information searching and retrieval skills, employ analysis and synthesis of drug information, and strengthen written and verbal communication skills. Students will learn how to critically evaluate biomedical literature and apply this knowledge to resolve issues regarding optimal medication use and medication-related adverse events.

Credits: 3

PHAR 556 - DISPERSED SYSTEMS

Dispersed or heterogeneous dosage forms constitute a special and continuously expanding class of pharmaceutical products. This course will develop students’ knowledge in the theoretical basis and practical application of various techniques in the design and stabilization of pharmaceutical systems such as colloids, suspensions, emulsions, gels and pastes, which constitute some of the most frequently-compounded medicinal products in pharmacy practice. The knowledge and skills required by pharmacists for handling, dispensing, and counseling patients on new and emerging dosage forms of mini- and nano-emulsions, liposomal and niosomal drug delivery systems will also be covered.

Credits: 3

PHAR 557 - DRUG DEVELOPMENT PROCESS

This course will focus on the entire process of discovering, developing (including preformulation or early phase development) and testing (preclinical through clinical) a new drug substance through the various phases of its life cycle (Discovery, in vitro and in vivo testing, ADME, Toxicology and Biodistribution, Investigational New drug (IND) submission and approval, Human Clinical trials and New Drug Application (NDA). Papers will be assigned and classes would be run as seminar-type sessions with enrollees describing what each step entails and the type of information that needs to be gathered so to apply for an investigational New Drug approval. Included would be a description of the purpose and design of each Phase of human clinical trials.

Credits: 3

PHAR 558 - SPECIALTY PHARMACY THERAPEUTIC CREDENTIALS I

This course incorporates The National Association of Specialty Pharmacy’s (NASP) newly-launched Specialty Pharmacy Education Center (SPEC) to provide an opportunity for students to earn a credential in a specialty pharmacy topic. Students will be expected to successfully complete a specified number of on-line, asynchronous modules in pre-determined advanced subject areas to which they were introduced in their previous pharmacy courses. Additional credentials in specialty pharmacy subject areas will position a student more favorably for residency programs and/or employment upon graduation.

Credits: 3

PHAR 560 - BIO DRUG DISCOVERY RES I

Focus and emphasis will be on working with drug candidate molecules, both protienaceous and small molecule, learning how to purify and characterize such agents, and test agents for medical, biochemical and immunological reactivities. Focus will also be placed on aspects of physiochemical properties of drug substances that must be considered in designing and developing novel drug substances that may one day enter into human clinical trials.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Lab Course

PHAR 561 - RES IN DRUG DESIGN & SYN I

This course is designed to introduce students to research in medicinal chemistry. A research project/problem is assigned to each student requiring specialized equipment and techniques. Students will learn to plan and conduct research, and interpret results.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Lab Course

PHAR 563 - DRUG DEL & TECHNOLOGY I

The course involves development of dosage forms such as solid, liquid, ophthalmic and parenteral delivery systems using rational statistical screening of formulation materials. Utilization of pharmacokinetics simulation software will be included to show how the fundamental properties of drug, drug-in-dosage-forms or delivery systems and drug-in-physiologic systems could be integrated in predicting therapeutic outcomes in normal physiologic and disease states employing simulated physiologic solutions with in vivo data.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Lab Course

PHAR 564 - INDEPENDENT CLINICAL RES I

The objective of this elective is to learn practical aspects of clinical research, to participate in key elements of clinical research (i.e. protocol composition, data collection, manuscript publication), and contribute to ongoing clinical pharmacy research at an academic medical center. Students will be expected to work independently with minimal oversight. Resources will be provided for the clinical research students to facilitate any and all research related activities.

Credits: 3

Attributes: Lab Course

PHAR 567 - PHARMACEUTICAL BIOTECHNOLOGY

Pharmaceutical Biotechnology is an increasingly important area of science and technology, and contributes to design and delivery of new therapeutic drugs, the development of diagnostic agents for medical tests, and the beginnings of gene therapy for correcting the medical symptoms of hereditary diseases. This course is designed to provide pharmacy graduate students with a basic understanding of the macromolecular drugs such as proteins and nucleic acids that have emerged as a new class of therapeutic agents due to their unique biological and pharmacological properties.

Credits: 3

PHAR 568 - THE GREEN PHARMACIST

This course is designed to identify opportunities for pharmacists for contribution to minimizing impact of drugs and cosmetics on environment. Students will review processes of discarding unused drugs and cosmetics, environmental burden and potential for adverse health outcomes of exposure to environmental chemicals commonly found in drugs and cosmetics, and ways to minimize it.

Credits: 3

PHAR 569 - ADVANCED INFECTIOUS DISEASES

The course is intended to provide an opportunity to expand knowledge in the area of infectious diseases. A case-based approach will be utilized to foster an interactive learning experience. Students will have an opportunity to build upon their current knowledge of infectious diseases through discussions and debates related to evidence-based medicine, policies and procedures, and the clinical management of infectious diseases-related issues.

Credits: 1.5

PHAR 570 - PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE I

Professional Practice I & Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences foundations are each an 80 hour sequence of internship activities which provides a number of experiential activities that integrate knowledge and skills you will be learning within your didactic courses. The continuum will serve as building blocks to prepare you for the advanced practice experiences. The learning activities will take you into authentic settings to develop important professional abilities.

Credits: 2

PHAR 571 - PROFESSIONAL PRACTICE II & IPP

Professional Practice II& Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences (IPPEs) foundations are each an 80 hour sequence of internship activities which provides a number of experiential activities that integrate knowledge and skills you will be learning within your didactic courses. The continuum will serve as building blocks to prepare you for the advanced practice experiences. The learning activities will take you into authentic settings to develop important professional abilities.

Credits: 2

PHAR 572 - PROF PRACTICE III & IPPE

Professional Practice I, II, III, IV & Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences (IPPEs) foundations are a 320-hour four-term sequence of internship activities which provides a number of experiential activities that integrate knowledge and skills you will be learning within your didactic courses. The continuum will serve as building blocks to prepare you for the advanced practice experiences. The learning activities will take you into authentic settings to develop important professional abilities.

Credits: 2

PHAR 573 - BIO DRUG DISCOVERY RES II

Continuation of PHAR 560.

Credits: 3

PHAR 574 - RES IN DRUG DESIGN & SYN II

Continuation of PHAR 561.

Credits: 3

PHAR 576 - DRUG DEL & TECHNOLOGY II

Continuation of PHAR 563.

Credits: 3

PHAR 577 - INDEPENDENT CLINICAL RES II

Continuation of PHAR 564.

Credits: 3

PHAR 578 - RES. IN SOC. & BEH. PHARM. II

This course is a continuation of PHAR 565.

Credits: 3

PHAR 579 - INF. DIS. CLIN. RES. OUTCOMES

The course is intended to provide students the opportunity to perform clinical research on current concepts in microbiology, infectious diseases pharmacotherapy, and/or antimicrobial pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics. Students will work with the course faculty to submit a research protocol to the Institutional Review Board (IRB) Committee, develop a data collection form, retrospectively collect patient clinical data, statistically analyze the collected data, submit a research abstract, and present a poster presentation on their research results at a national pharmacy or infectious diseases conference.

Credits: 3

PHAR 601 - PHARMACEUTICAL CARE III

Subsequent terms of the course sequence introduce new concepts to the student pertaining to professional practice of pharmaceutical care. The student will build upon previous knowledge and engage in experiences necessary to provide pharmaceutical care to patients. Students will continue to hone and accumulate knowledge and skills from topics pertaining to renal, genitourinary, and cardiovascular pharmacotherapy and demonstrate these in ongoing assessments and capstone objective structured clinical examinations.

Credits: 2

Attributes: Lab Course

PHAR 602 - PHARMACEUTICAL CARE IV

This course is fourth in the series of six pharmaceutical care lab courses. Throughout this series, lecture, lab, and active learning formats are utilized. PC Lab IV specifically addresses practical applications of topics covered in Integrated Sequence VI and VII. These topics include musculoskeletal injuries, management of hepatic drug interactions, prevention and management of ulcer, ostomy products and OTC gastrointestinal agents. Additionally, activities to reinforce knowledge of the top 150 drugs and nonprescription therapeutics are continued.

Credits: 2

PHAR 603 - PHARMACEUTICAL CARE V

This course is fifth in the series of six pharmaceutical care lab courses. Throughout this series, lecture, lab, and active learning formats are utilized. PC Lab V specifically addresses practical applications of topics covered in Integrated Sequence VIII and IX. These topics include psychiatric and neurologic conditions. Additionally, activities to reinforce knowledge of the top 150 drugs and nonprescription therapeutics are continued. PC Lab V also addresses concepts and skills related to sterile preparations.

Credits: 2

PHAR 604 - PHARM CARE VI: OSCE

This course is designed to review and assess clinical skills and concepts learned in previous of Integrated Sequence and Pharmaceutical Care Lab courses. Additional focus will be on accessing and interpreting appropriate clinical practice guidelines.

Credits: 3

PHAR 605 - PRINCIPLES OF DRUG ACTION

This course is designed to teach biopharmaceutical researchers about the fundamentals of drug action related to pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and toxicology. A major goal of this course is to impart knowledge on the chemical and pharmacological properties related to drug action and drug development. Students will be introduced to the various targets (e.g. receptors, ion channels, enzymes) for drug development and factors that affect drug action.

Credits: 3

Course Notes: Prerequisites: PharmD Pharmacology Course

PHAR 606 - INTRODUCTION TO PHARMACEUTICAL DOSAGE FORMS AND BIOPHARMACEUTICS

The course focusses on physical-chemical principles governing pharmaceutical systems, dosage form design and development. Students will learn how physicochemical properties of drugs affect their formulation into dosage forms and impacted by excipient selection and processing variables, and the biopharmaceutical considerations needed for design of safe, efficacious, stable and acceptable products. Students will be introduced to drug development and approval processes which could be integrated with student’s specific research projects.

Credits: 3

Course Notes: Prerequisites: Pharmaceutics

PHAR 609 - THESIS DESIGN AND PROPOSAL

The research course is focused on the student developing a research proposal with his advisor on a topic selected by the advisor. The research topics will range from pharmacology, pharmaceutics, drug delivery to traditional medicine, medicinal chemistry, molecular pharmaceutics, etc. The student will then present the proposal to research committee that will be composed by the research advisor as a final assessment of the success of the design.

Credits: 1

PHAR 610 - THESIS RESEARCH

The research course will be fully lab based. It will comprise of student-advisor skill-enhancing activities such as training in scientific techniques, journal clubs and research update presentations.

Credits: 2

PHAR 624 - DRUG METABOLISM AND DRUG INTERACTIONS

This course is designed to teach biopharmaceutical researchers about the principles of biotransformation related to pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Metabolism is a critical step in the disposition of therapeutic agents and its modulation by drugs and health supplements can lead to drug interactions. In this course students will have the opportunity to learn about various drug metabolism methodologies, drug interactions and how these principles are applied in the drug development process.

Credits: 3

Course Notes: Prerequisites: Pharm D Pharmacology

PHAR 630 - INTEGRATED SEQUENCE IV: RENAL AND GENITOURINARY SYSTEMS

Integrated Sequence IV: Renal and Genitourinary Systems. This course is designed to provide background necessary to select optimal drug regimens based on biopharmaceutical principles and clinical considerations of the medications presented herein and introduce students to the scientific, clinical, social and economic aspects of drug use pertaining to renal and genitourinary diseases.

Credits: 4.5

PHAR 631 - INTEGRATED SEQUENCE V: CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEMS

Integrated Sequence V: Cardiovascular Systems. This course is designed to provide background necessary to select optimal drug regimens based on biopharmaceutical principles and clinical considerations of the medications presented herein and introduce students to the scientific, clinical, social and economic aspects of drug use pertaining to cardiovascular diseases.

Credits: 4.5

PHAR 632 - INTEGRATED SEQUENCE VI: GASTROINTESTINAL AND HEPATOBILARY

This course is designed to provide background necessary to select optimal drug regimens based on biopharmaceutical principles and clinical considerations of the medications presented herein and introduce students to the scientific, clinical, social and economic aspects of drug use pertaining to the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary systems.

Credits: 4.5

PHAR 633 - INTEGRATED SEQUENCE VII: INFECTIOUS DISEASES

This course is designed to provide background necessary to select optimal drug regimens based on biopharmaceutical principles and clinical considerations of the medications presented herein and introduce students to the scientific, clinical, social and economic aspects of drug use pertaining to the musculoskeletal and immune systems.

Credits: 4.5

PHAR 634 - INTEGRATED SEQUENCE VIII: NEUROLOGIC DISORDERS

This course is designed to provide background necessary to select optimal drug regimens based on biopharmaceutical principles and clinical considerations of the medications presented herein and introduce students to the scientific, clinical, social and economic aspects of drug use pertaining to the neurological systems.

Credits: 4.5

PHAR 635 - INTEGRATED SEQUENCE IX: PSYCHIATRIC AND BEHAVIORAL CONDITIONS

This course is designed to provide background necessary to select optimal drug regimens based on biopharmaceutical principles and clinical considerations of the medications presented herein and introduce students to the scientific, clinical, social and economic aspects of drug use pertaining to the treatment of psychiatric and mood disorders, and related behavioral conditions.

Credits: 4.5

PHAR 636 - INTEGRATED SEQUENCE X: HEMATOLOGIC AND ONCOLOGIC DISORDERS

This course is designed to provide background necessary to select optimal drug regimens based on biopharmaceutical principles and clinical considerations of the medications presented herein and introduce students to the scientific, clinical, social and economic aspects of drug use pertaining to the treatment of hematologic and oncologic disorders.

Credits: 4.5

PHAR 637 - INTEGRATED SEQUENCE XI: SPECIAL PATIENT POPULATIONS/CONDITIONS

This course is designed to provide background necessary to select optimal drug regimens based on biopharmaceutical principles and clinical considerations of the medications presented herein and introduce students to the scientific, clinical, social and economic aspects of drug use pertaining to the special patient populations including critically ill patients, geriatric patients, pediatric patients, women’s health needs, patients with other illnesses that require special considerations.

Credits: 4.5

PHAR 638 - PHARMACEUTICAL ANALYSIS

The goal of the course is to introduce students to identification and quantitation of pharmaceuticals, including literature search and writing of laboratory reports Lecture topics that will include identification and classical quantitation of pharmaceuticals using the following techniques – gas chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, visible, UV , infra-red, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Bioanalytical chemistry techniques such as electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, enzyme immunoassays, nucleic acid amplification and protein sequencing will be discussed.

Credits: 3

PHAR 640 - PHARMACOGENOMICS AND THERAPEUTIC DRUG MONITORING

This course is designed to provide a broad perspective on the emerging field of pharmacogenomics and its application to alterations of drug pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics, therapeutic drug monitoring and applications for pharmacotherapy of various diseases, including, but not limited to, those affecting cardiovascular, endocrine, hematologic, nervous, respiratory, renal, and immune systems, and cancer.

Credits: 3

PHAR 650 - PRACTICE MANAGEMENT

This course introduces Pharmacy students to various management roles in Pharmacy Practice with the aim of preparing healthcare leaders that will deliver safe, effective and efficient care across different settings. Students will develop a strong foundation in management sciences with application and integration of Medication Therapy Management (MTM).

Credits: 3

PHAR 651 - CURRENT TOPICS IN INFECTIOUS DISEASE

The course will introduce current evolving issues with infectious diseases, including approaches to antimicrobial stewardship, emerging infections with agents such as adult coxsackie virus and influenza strain H7N9, new resistance issues impacting the treatment of infections such as gonorrhea, pathogens that may be employed in bioterrorism, zoonotic and rickettsial infections, and exploring novel dosing strategies utilized as a result of increasing antibiotic resistance.

Credits: 1.5

PHAR 652 - HEALTH ECONOMICS & OUTCOMES

This course is designed to introduce students to the concepts and methods of health economics and outcomes assessments and its application to pharmacy practice. This course will help students understands the concepts and methods of economic analyses and its role in clinical decision making, provide a brief review of decision modeling techniques; introduce to the concepts and importance of medication adherence, patient satisfaction, quality of life and health related quality of life in health care.

Credits: 3

PHAR 653 - COMM OUT, ON TRENDING OTC TOP.

This active learning course is designed to expose students to outreach programs that will provide them with an opportunity to improve clinical, communication, and social/emotional skills through conceptualization, preparation, and delivery of a presentation on a popular non-prescription medication topic to the local community on a site to be determined.

Credits: 3

PHAR 654 - BIOTHERAPEUTIC DRUGS

This course will focus on currently marketed biotherapeutic drugs – what they are – how they work (i.e. their biochemical and/or immunological mechanism of action) – how they are manufactured and formulated, and the benefit/risk aspects governing their use. Three broad classes of biotherapeutic drugs will be emphasized: 1.) Peptides/or small proteins; 2.) Cytokines; and 3.) Monoclonal antibodies and Fc Fusion proteins. Specific drugs within each class will be highlighted and product insert summary documents will be used to methodically discuss each subsection of such documents in scientific (methodological) detail, pathways or biological responses targeted by each drug, and the rationale behind why specific details and testing were required prior to obtaining FDA approval to market these drugs.

Credits: 3

PHAR 655 - POST-GRADUATE TRAINING

This course will educate and prepare students for postgraduate residency training. It will expose you to different postgraduate training opportunities including community pharmacy residencies, ambulatory care residencies and fellowships. It will increase knowledge, interest, and confidence among students about residency training and identify and develop the skills needed for application to these programs.

Credits: 1.5

PHAR 656 - ADVANCED HIV/AIDS PHARMCOTHERAPY

The course is intended to provide students with an opportunity to gain an in-depth knowledge of HIV and AIDS. Students will be challenged to apply their HIV/AIDS pharmacotherapy skills to interactive patient cases focused on the management of patient-specific antiretroviral therapy, treatment of AIDS-related opportunistic infections, and the treatment of occupational/non-occupational/perinatal HIV exposure. In addition, interactive discussions regarding the sociological, psychological, and global health issues related to the AIDS epidemic will be discussed.

Credits: 1.5

PHAR 657 - PUBLIC HEALTH/HEALTH POLICY

This course presents the basic and critical issues in public health within the context of population healthcare and an in-depth discussion of the role of pharmacy professionals in promoting and protecting the health of the public. In order to address public health needs, pharmacists must understand and address the fundamental determinants of health in a population in order to provide effective health promotion, disease prevention, and quality health services. This course focuses on strategies for the identification and management of the healthcare needs of specific populations.

Credits: 3

PHAR 659 - PHARMACUETICAL UNIT OPERATIONS IN ADVANCED COMPOUNDING TECHNOLOGY

Students will gain deeper understanding of the theoretical principles and mechanisms of action of some crucial unit operations including size reduction and separation, mixing, compression and consolidation (compaction), evaporation, drying, centrifugation, etc. that are commonly applied in compound practices. Student will formulate, compound and assess quality and stability of model formulations of select drugs among those commonly compounded or are likely to be compounded in clinical, community or hospital setting.

Credits: 3

PHAR 660 - ADVANCED MEDICINAL CHEM.

The course introduces students to different research strategies/techniques involved in drug discovery and design such as rational drug design, computational methods, high throughput and fragment based screening.

Credits: 3

PHAR 662 - REGULATORY SCIENCE

The course will focus on guidelines that are used in drug discovery, drug development and the approval process.

Credits: 3

PHAR 663 - INTRO TO GLOBAL HEALTH

This course explores both macro and micro aspects of global health systems. The functions and roles of pharmacists and other healthcare professionals within other health systems will be scrutinized, including an understanding of global and international situations; and their effects on the local healthcare delivery systems. The impact of social, cultural, political, economic, and technological changes on the development of various healthcare systems around the globe will also be covered.

Credits: 3

PHAR 664 - ADVANCED DIABETES PHARMACOTHER

This elective course is designed to build on background provided in Integrated Sequence III: Endocrine and Pulmonary Systems (IS III) to select optimal drug regimens based on biopharmaceutical principles and clinical considerations for the treatment of diabetes mellitus. This course will expand upon basic principles covered in IS III regarding the treatment of diabetes mellitus and will include topics such as landmark trials in diabetes management, insulin pump management, lifestyle coaching, and special populations.

Credits: 3

PHAR 665 - EXPANDING THE ROLE OF PHARMACISTS

In this course students will learn about the role of pharmacists on the micro and macro levels in public health. Specifically, the students will examine opportunities and challenges for expanding the profession of pharmacy in the public health arena. In addition, the students will learn how to develop, design, and implement health promotion initiatives using critical educational tools, successful health programs, and valid evaluation instruments to assess outcomes.

Credits: 3

PHAR 666 - NUTRITION AND OBESITY

This course is designed to provide a comprehensive modern knowledge pertaining to the causes and consequences of this serious health issue, therefore, course will serve as a practical educational resource. This course will also focus on relevant nutrition information, the epidemiology, prevention and treatment options. This course will leave students with a clear understanding of the scientific, clinical and social aspects of obesity, and increase the awareness of future obesity research and public health policy.

Credits: 3

PHAR 667 - HEALTH CARE COMMUNICATION

In this course students will learn about the underlying factors that impact effective communication among interdisciplinary teams in various health care settings. Students will have a better understanding of key communication theory, tools, and skills that enhance the quality of patient-centered care provided by health care professionals including, pharmacists, physicians, nurses, and social workers.

Credits: 3

PHAR 669 - HEALTH COMM. AND MASS MEDIA

Health Communication through Mass Media will specifically look at the human communication process through the lens of Mass Media Theory. By examining various health campaigns including national health awareness initiatives, pharmaceutical advertisements, and risk communication students will gain a stronger understanding of the need to effectively communicate with patients from diverse backgrounds. As future healthcare providers students will gain an understanding of the impact of these various campaigns and mass medias effects on their future patients.

Credits: 3

PHAR 670 - PRF. PRACTICE IV AND IPPE

Professional Practice IV & Introductory Pharmacy Practice Experiences (IPPEs) are an 80 hour sequence of internship activities (total of 240 hours) which provides a number of experiential activities that integrate knowledge and skills you will be learning within your didactic courses. The continuum will serve as building blocks to prepare you for the advanced practice experiences. The learning activities will take you into authentic settings to develop important professional abilities.

Credits: 2

PHAR 671 - INTERPROFESSIONAL PRACTICE/IPE

The course is a continuation of professional practice experiences intended to engage students with other health professionals in order to establish a climate of mutual respect and shared values; understand the roles of other health professions; strengthen communications with other health professionals; and, foster greater teamwork between pharmacists and other health professionals. The course will be divided into blocks and consist of a seminar and other activities, including practice experiences off campus of up to 80 hours.

Credits: 2

PHAR 672 - INTER-PROF PRAC. II & IPE

The course is a continuation of professional practice experiences intended to engage students with other health professionals in order to establish a climate of mutual respect and shared values; understand the roles of other health professions; strengthen communications with other health professionals; and, foster greater teamwork between pharmacists and other health professionals. The course will be divided into blocks and consist of a seminar and other activities, including practice experiences off campus of up to 80 hours.

Credits: 2

PHAR 673 - BIO DRUG DISCOVERY RES III

Continuation of PHAR 573.

Credits: 3

PHAR 674 - RES IN DRUG DESIGN & SYN III

Continuation of PHAR 574.

Credits: 3

PHAR 675 - RES IN PHARMACOLOGY III

Continuation of PHAR 575.

Credits: 3

PHAR 676 - DRUG DEL & TECHNOLOGY III

Continuation of PHAR 576.

Credits: 3

PHAR 677 - INDEPENDENT CLINICAL RES III

Continuation of PHAR 577.

Credits: 3

PHAR 678 - RES. IN SOC. & BEH. PHARM. III

This course is a continuation of PHAR 578.

Credits: 3

PHAR 679 - FIELD RESEARCH ELECTIVE

This course provides the opportunity for "hands on" study in the off-campus site - rainforest of Peru. Students will live on a reserve, and travel to meet with botanists, taxonomists, pharmacists, shamans, and farmers. Time in the classroom will focus on the pharmacology, physical chemistry, and ethnobotany of a variety of indigenous plants. The course will be completed upon arrival of the student by the end of summer term.

Credits: 3

PHAR 695 - INDEPENDENT STUDY

This course will expose a pharmacy student to research designs and application in social and behavioral, or clinical pharmacy. The student will work with a course instructor on a project that will provide hands-on experience with research methods, data collection, analysis and reporting. The student will be provided with tools and any resources necessary to conduct such research.

Credits: 3

PHAR 750 - HEALTH OUTCOMES RESEARCH

This elective course is designed to offer students hands on research experience in the area of health outcomes research. Students will work closely with the instructor(s) in developing a new research proposal or work on an ongoing research project. Students' will be presented with the opportunities of applying the concepts and principles of pharmaceconomics and health outcomes that they learned in their didactic coursework (PHAR 652) and gaining research skills in this area.

Credits: 3

PHAR 751 - RESEARCH IN PUBLIC HEALTH

In this course students will learn how to improve public health among the underserved population. Specifically, students will identify a health problem, assess patients' needs, examine potential solutions, select the best framework to address the problem, implement a health initiative program, and assess the outcomes. Ultimately, students will learn how to be effective members of the interdisciplinary team to enhance public health.

Credits: 3

PHAR 753 - ADVANCED PHARMACOKINETICS SIMULATIONS

Advanced pharmacokinetics simulation is a computer-lab based course focusing on modeling and simulation of rate processes of Absorption, Distribution, Metabolism and Excretion (ADME) and integration of dosage form characteristics with the potential therapeutic outcome and adverse effects. Students will have the opportunity of learning with literature data (using Gastroplus® software) and applying their skills to clinical data, generating pharmacokinetic parameters and applying the information to dosage determination and adjustments for virtual patients. Students’ understanding of basic biopharmaceutics and pharmacokinetics principles will be reinforced to prepared them to apply the knowledge gained in the design, implementation and management of drug therapy in a community pharmacy, hospital and clinical settings.

Credits: 3

PHAR 754 - NUCLEAR PHARMACY

This course will expose the student to topics in nuclear pharmacy and nuclear medicine. During the course the student will be provided with the fundamentals that nuclear pharmacists encounter while meeting the NRC criteria to handle radiopharmaceuticals.

Credits: 1.5

PHAR 755 - DRUG DISCOVERY:CONCEPTION-CLIN

This course is designed to provide an understanding of the Drug Discovery process, from the conception and enablement of an idea for a new therapeutic, to its advancement to clinical research (up to, but not including any further than phase 1). The course will look at the process used to identify and validate a target for a particular disease, then look at how assays (both in vitro and in vivo) are developed and implemented in the process. This course will also look at how target molecules are identified, and then optimized, including in vitro, in vivo, ADMET and toxicology data to justify the selection of a single molecule for development.

Credits: 3

PHAR 756 - TOXICOLOGY FOR PHARMACISTS

This didactic elective course will educate the future pharmacists about the principles of toxicology including dose-response relationships, target organ toxicity, bioaccumulation, and toxicokinetics. The application of toxicology principles will be highlighted in the perspective of pharmacy practice and human health risk assessment. Students will be introduced to how descriptive toxicity tests are used to set the first in human dose for clinical trials.

Credits: 1.5

PHAR 757 - PRINCIPLES OF PALLIATIVE CARE

This elective will provide students with an understanding of the pharmacist’s role in pain control, palliative, and end-of-life care.

Credits: 3

PHAR 758 - CLIN. CASES IN ANTITHROMBOTIC

This course will provide students with a working knowledge of basic and advanced pharmacotherapeutic problems related to antithrombotic and antiplatelet therapy. Students in this class will participate in discussions of cases of real patients on antithrombotic or antiplatelet agents. Each week, cases will focus on a different aspect of antithrombotic/antiplatelet management. All students will be expected to lead at least one discussion, as well as actively participate in weekly discussions.

Credits: 1.5

PHAR 760 - INTRO TO SYS. REV. & META ANAL

This course will provide an overview of the concepts necessary for performing systematic reviews/meta-analyses, help students understand the strengths and limitations of the method, and provide step-by-step guidance in performing a systematic review/meta-analysis. Students will learn about developing a focused research question, designing a study protocol, defining inclusion/exclusion criteria, identifying relevant literatures databases, developing literature search strategies, performing a literature search, creation of a data abstraction form, data abstraction and management, and introduction to statistical methods for meta-analysis.

Credits: 3

PHAR 761 - LEADERSHIP & ADVOCACY

In this course students will learn about the various paths for leadership positions in pharmacy, examine characteristics of successful leaders in our profession, understand the significance of advocacy, and lean how to develop effective strategies to expand the practice of pharmacy in today’s legislative environment and competitive market. The students will have an opportunity to select a topic of their interest to advocate for on the state, regional, or national level.

Credits: 3

PHAR 762 - ADV. TOPICS IN CARDIO MED.

Cardiovascular medicine is impacted to the large extent by the evolving clinical trials. This course will survey the most important landmark studies and also recent findings in acute coronary syndromes, hypertension, dyslipidemias, congestive heart failure and arrhythmias and their implications from the clinical guidelines perspectives.

Credits: 1.5

PHAR 763 - INDIVID THER. & PERS. MED.

This course is aimed at developing students’ knowledge base in how differences in human physiological and pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic parameters are being utilized in the optimization of drug therapy to achieve individualized therapeutic care. Students will be guided to explore the historical and modern perspectives of individualized medicine, patient parameters and diagnostic methods from gross pathologic to molecular levels.

Credits: 3

PHAR 764 - ADVANCED PHARMACY LAW

Students will learn about pharmacy laws and regulations in various practice settings. Moreover, students will research, analyze and incorporate the covered laws and regulations within the practice of pharmacy. The covered laws and regulations will include both state and federal concerning pharmacy practice and healthcare policies relevant to the practice of pharmacy and other health care setting. Civil liability pharmacy practice and professional ethics are discussed. The course also covers an overview of the areas of business laws dealing with torts, products liability, criminal law, contracts, anti-kickback and anti-fraud particularly as they affect pharmacies, pharmacists, and the pharmaceutical industry.

Credits: 1.5

PHAR 765 - VETERINARY PHARMACY

Veterinary Pharmacy provides a foundation for a pharmacist interested in providing care to nonhuman patients. It focuses on the care of dogs and cats, but concepts can be applied to other species. Veterinary pharmacy references, legal aspects of dispensing, and unique physiologic and pharmacokinetic differences amongspecies will be highlighted. Prevention and management of common disease states will be addressed. Other topics include drug administration, zoonotic infections, dog bite prevention, immunizations, triage, wound care, and appropriate use of OTCs. Class periods will feature a combination of lecture, student research, and skills. Pets will be present in several class sessions.

Credits: 3

PHAR 766 - LEARNING, MEMORY, DISEASES AND DRUGS

This course is designed to introduce pharmacy students to types of memory, processes in memory acquisition, storage and retrieval and the underlying molecular and genetic mechanisms; and drugs used in the management of diseases with memory impairments.

Credits: 3

PHAR 767 - INTRODUCTION TO PEDIATRICS

This course will introduce you to the practice of pediatrics. Neonatal and pediatric patients exhibit unique pharmacokinetics that make them more than small adults. This concept as well as specific pediatric disease states/conditions (prematurity, asthma, cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia, infectious diseases, etc.) will be introduced. Additionally, the use of over-the-counter medications and management of accidental ingestions will be covered.

Credits: 1.5

PHAR 768 - PHAR. ADVOCACY & LEAD. DEV.

This course will focus on developing the student's leadership skills and communication skills as an advocate for the profession of pharmacy. Class requirements will be met through active participation in required readings, class discussions and issue debates, guest lecturers, site visits (State Capitol, legislative office visits, etc), and written assignments and other special projects.

Credits: 3

PHAR 770 - ADVANCED PATIENT CARE - COMMUNITY

Students will apply the facts, information and concepts gained in didactic coursework to professional practice through practical experience under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist in a community pharmacy setting. The Community Pharmacy Practice rotation encompasses medication dispensing and control, communicating with patients, prescribers, and other health care professionals and understanding the basic principles of managing workflow to deliver positive patient outcomes. Community pharmacists are the most visible and available to the public. This rotation develops student competence to provide pharmaceutical care in the community setting and extends students' image of community pharmacy practice beyond traditional dispensing. This experience contributes to the integration of clinical knowledge and skills with the basics of communication, medication dispensing and control.

Credits: 8

PHAR 771 - ADVANCED PATIENT CARE - HOSPITAL

Students will apply the facts, information and concepts gained in didactic coursework to professional practice through practical experience under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist in a hospital pharmacy setting. The hospital rotation help students integrate knowledge and theoretical concepts across the curriculum in an environment that encourages and requires interactions between students, preceptors and patients. Our goal is to enable students to safely and accurately perform the activities associated with the receipt, preparation and dispensing of medication orders, perform required drug control activities, support the mission of the pharmacy department and activities that maintain productive relationships with other departments in the hospital.

Credits: 8

PHAR 772 - ADVANCED PATIENT CARE-AMBULATORY CARE

Students will apply the facts, information and concepts gained in didactic coursework to professional practice through practical experience under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist in an ambulatory care setting. The ambulatory care rotations rotation helps students integrate knowledge and theoretical concepts across the curriculum in an environment that encourages and requires interactions between students, preceptors and patients. Our goal is to enable students to provide safe, effective and cost-efficient disease state management by assuring the safe, accurate preparation and dispensing of medications, developing patient-specific pharmacotherapy plans and optimizing patients’ outcomes. Students should gain experience in treating common disease states in the ambulatory care environment, including but not limited to endocrine disorders, cardiovascular diseases, commonly occurring outpatient infectious diseases, respiratory diseases by taking patient histories, developing patient-specific recommendations, providing counseling, monitoring patient outcomes and consulting with other healthcare providers.

Credits: 8

PHAR 773 - ADVANCED PATIENT CARE-ACUTE CARE MEDICINE

Students will apply the facts, information, and concepts gained in didactic coursework to professional practice through practical experience under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist in a hospital setting. The adult internal medicine advanced practice rotation requires students to integrate knowledge and theoretical concepts across the curriculum in an environment that requires appropriate interactions between students, preceptors, other healthcare professionals, and patients. The goal is to enable students to recommend and provide safe, effective, and cost-efficient patient care by developing evidence-based, patient-specific pharmacotherapy plans that optimize patient outcomes and have the support of the other healthcare practitioners involved. Students should gain experience in treating common disease states in the adult internal medicine population, including but not limited to endocrine disorders, cardiovascular diseases, infectious diseases, respiratory diseases, and renal/liver dysfunction.

Credits: 8

PHAR 774 - APPE ELECTIVE ROTATION I

Students will apply the facts, information, and concepts gained in didactic coursework to professional practice through practical experience under the supervision of a preceptor with specialized skills relevant to the specific nature of the of the rotation. Potential areas in which this rotation may occur include, but are not limited to: managed care, pharmacy supervision, healthcare policy, informatics, healthcare business management, academic pharmacy, program development or implementation in a healthcare organization and other areas. The goals of these rotations will be individualized to the setting in close proximity in time to the rotation in order to assure they are relevant to the opportunities present then. The availability of these rotations varies depending on the ability of the rotation site to effectively supervise the student at different points in time.

Credits: 8

PHAR 775 - APPE ELECTIVE ROTATION II

Students will apply the facts, information, and concepts gained in didactic coursework to professional practice through practical experience under the supervision of a licensed pharmacist in a hospital setting. The advanced care medicine rotation requires students to integrate knowledge and theoretical concepts across the curriculum in an environment that requires appropriate interactions between students, preceptors, other healthcare professionals and patients in the advanced areas of inpatient care. The goal is to enable students to recommend and provide safe, effective, and cost-efficient patient care by developing evidence-based, patient-specific pharmacotherapy plans that optimize patient outcomes and have the support of the other healthcare practitioners involved. Students should gain experience in treating complex disease states within the internal medicine population, including but not limited to oncology, infectious disease and critical care.

Credits: 8